CNC Components and Workings
A CNC machine, whether it’s a laser cutter, waterjetting, 3D printer or other type of Z, X,Y device, uses binary numbers (0,1) to signals motors. This allows the machine to start and stop. There are two types of CNC machines. One is where the work surface is moveable. The other allows for the gantry to be moveable. A gantry is the moveable arm of a machine.
A CNC machine has lots of parts. Electrical parts can include a computer, a breakout board, motors, power supply unit (PSU) and limit switches. The computer will send directions to the breakout board, and the board will run the motor that controls the spindles. The PSU runs the supply to the motor which creates designs. The limit switches will allow your machine to know when and where to stop.
The mechanical aspects of a CNC machine, are the frame, transmission, bearings, couplers, and guides/supports. The frame holds the machine, and allows the transmission to transfer movement of the motors to the axis. Bearings keep the spindle up right and reduce strains on the spindle. The guides keep the machine steady and guides the linear movement.